Published on March 2nd, 2010 — 5:39am

Since Mursyid can become God therefore some of the Tariqat practised visualising their Mursyid in all their acts of worship (Rabitah). However, to others they claimed that they visualised their Mursyid because their Mursyid will visualise their Mursyid in an ascending manner until it reaches Prophet Muhammad [pbuh]. Since the Holy Prophet had seen Allah in his night ascension (Miraj) therefore by doing so they are carrying out their worship as if they are seeing Allah (Ihsan). [1] This parable is refuted by Aishah (Wife of Holy Prophet) who said that anyone who said that the Holy Prophet had seen Allah during the night ascension had committed a gross wrongdoing towards Allah because the Holy Prophet did not see Allah.[2] Even the Holy Prophet denied seeing Allah and said that there is the Veils of Light and if these Veils are lifted those who see the Essence will be annihilated immediately.[3] To this end, Allah had commanded that He communicated with His creations either behind the Veils or by way of inspiration.[4] Allah also forbade the act of making any pious person as His equal.[5] Allah had further commanded that we are to remember Him and none others in all our acts of worship[6] (including meditation[7]). To do otherwise, tantamount to making an equal of Him (Syirk) and this is an unforgiveable sin. [8] Even to have other than Him in our mind during our acts of worship will also tantamount to Syirk in a subtle form.[9]

The above aside, another innovation surfaced. This time man can be a “Perfect man” once the soul of our Holy Prophet entered into his body.[10]

In the first place why should the soul of our Holy Prophet enter into another body? Secondly, why his holy soul must entered another body which is undoubtedly much inferior comparatively to his soul? Thirdly, how come the Perfect man is only peoples from the Tariqat? Fourthly, why none of the Companions ever promulgated that they had become Perfect man? Fifthly, the Holy Prophet had said that the best “Ummah” was during his time, after his time and after their time. The idea of the Perfect man came much later. Hence, none of the best “Ummah” became a Perfect man? Sixthly, the Holy Prophet had said that whenever we gave “salam” to him, Allah returned his soul back to him to return our salam. [11] Such being the case, his soul is not easily available to enter into another person body.

Then there are Tariqat which openly embraced the concept of “Wahdatul Wujud” and made it part of their teaching. The facts that this concept had been rejected by Sayidina Ali and that its leader (Ibnu Saba) and his followers were harshly punished by Sayidina Ali were not taken into consideration.[12]

Then there are other Tariqat which openly embraced the concept of “Nur Muhammad” notwithstanding our prominent Islamic Scholar Dr Yusuf Qardawi opined that there is no source in the Quran or the Sunnah supporting this. As such he concluded that the aforesaid concept cannot be foundation of our belief (aqidah).[13]

As mentioned earlier, Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] had said that the best “Ummah” was during his time (Companions), after his time (Tabiin) and after their time (Followers of the Tabiun). [14] The Holy Prophet had also said that there would come after him, peoples who brought innovation (in religion). [15] He added that we must steer away from innovation (in religion) as they would lead us astray.[16] True enough, 3 centuries later and the first time in Islamic History, the Tariqat made its entrance. It was but an innovation (Bidaah).

Apart from innovations, the Tariqat misinterpreted the meaning of “Qalb”. To them “Qalb” referred to the heart. This misinterpretation caused heartache to many because they endeavour to remember Allah vide the heart. As the heart has no function to remember hence many could not attain high level of concentration in their acts of worship. Imam Ghazali addressed them to correct their misinterpretation of the Qalb but was unsuccessful. [17] To Imam Ghazali, “Qalb” refers to the mind and that the function of remembering is with the mind not the heart.[18] Hence Allah had commanded that Jinn and Mankind have a heart but did not use it to understand (Allah’s commands).[19]

Another misnomer of the Tariqat is the stress on oral chanting in zikrullah (remembrance of Allah). Hence dervishes eventhough are swayed emotionally by their oral chanting, their minds are devoid of remembrance of Allah. Ironically, the chant is also totally meaningless as it is neither Arabic nor language of mankind or Jinn such as, “Uh Uh, Ah ah, Hu Hu” etc.[20] To make matter worst, the heart is given the function of remembrance when there is not any.

Imam Ghazali had said that it is incumbent for a person to know his God before worshipping him.[21] He then added that it is after knowing Allah, a person will learn and endeavour to improve his acts of worship. [22] Thus if knowing Allah is made almost insurmountable and is reserved for those who are lofty enough in their religious echelon then when can an ordinary person begins to know Allah and learn to improve their acts of worship? Hence to insist that a person can only know Allah through a Mursyid in Tariqat and after doing meditation for years before waiting for the inspiration which brings about enlightenment, which may or may not come, is in fact putting barricades preventing people who want to know Allah. In this way, it is a bad innovation (Bidaah Dalalah).

If a person had to spend majority of his time or lifetime chanting God’s name “Allah” or other Names or Attributes in order to know Allah then when will he begin to perform all the other acts of worship especially the supererogatory acts of worship such as nightly prayers, fasting, reading the Quran, remembering Allah, act of charity and others when he has yet to know Allah?

In addition, when will he learn other knowledge(s) which will help him to sustain a living in this world for himself and his family? The thought of this made Imam Ghazali grieved. [23]

Why is there a need to wait for the inspiration for enlightenment which may or may not come when such inspiration involves verses of the Quran such, “I’m The First and The Last, I’m The manifest and The Hidden[24]; “And He is with you wheresoever ye may be[25] and others, which esoteric spiritual meanings can be explained easily (as in the “Old Way”).


B.              Predestination

We shall now touch on the issue of predestination. In the first place, it has become the 6th Pillar of Faith so how can we change or vary it? [26] If it can still be changed or varied then it is inconclusive and therefore it cannot be a Pillar of Faith. Secondly, if it can be changed and varied, then Allah is not the Wisest because He did not foresee the changes and variation forthcoming in His Divine Plan. Thirdly, if the Divine Plan can be changed or varied, then there will be abundance “blanco” all over the Plan rendering it less Divine. Fourthly, if it can be changed and varied, then His commandments that He did not forget even an atom in His Divine Plan[27] or that His Divine Plan is secured and unalterable[28] sounded hollow. Fifthly, if His Divine Plan can be changed and varied by us then the addition, changes or variations are pursuant to our endeavour and foresight. Hence, we are more learned or intelligent in some or all the learning than Him. In this context, His commandment that everything acts in accordance to His Wishes[29] need to be relooking closely.

If His Divine Plan is not conclusive we may be in big trouble. First, we may have our physical attributes changing places every day and at every moment. We can never be sure where our mouth, ears, nose and others situate at any given moment. Similarly, we can never be sure too where our faculties of sight, hearing, taste and other situate. Can you imagine the immense problems it will cause if early one morning, your hands decided to be your legs and your eyes decided to be your ears? Thanks to Allah, for predestination. Secondly, with predestination, animals give birth to their own kinds. Can you imagine, a Donkey giving birth to a Giraffe or, a Deer giving birth to an Elephant! Thirdly, we thank Allah for predestination as, can you imagine if all drinking water decided to be as hard as iron or iron decided to be as soft as water. Fourthly, we thank Allah for predestination for all we had yesterday being brought forward to today. Can you imagine what will happen if what we done yesterday disappeared? Can you imagine the havoc it will cause in building and construction industry, intellectual property, education and others? Fifthly, can we you imagine the upheaval it will cause if we woke up and our voice decided to speak a language which is totally foreign. Try to imagine waking up speaking the language of a native of Amazon (Brazil) in a Chinese family in China. Or, waking up speaking Javanese in an Eskimos Family? Sixthly, can you dare to imagine if the solar system refuses to follow its course and the Sun decided to have a closer look at the Earth? We have so much to thank Allah for predestination!

So do we still think we are smart and wanting to change predestination? Or do we put complete faith in Allah in that, He knows what He is doing without need for assistance from His creation.[30] Thus He had commanded that He knows what we know not.[31] Hence he commanded our Holy Prophet[32] and all Believers[33] to surrender our trust and faith totally to Him.

Once we accepted that He is the All-Wisest and His Divine Plan is complete and perfect and pursuant thereto surrender our complete trust and faith in Him then will He teaches us that we know not. To this end, we begin to notice and learn that in predestination, there are lessons, knowledge, learning and other benefits to be derived if we trust our Lord. Eventually, we will look at predestination as favours from Lord and not otherwise. A parable, a man had to take bitter medicine in order to cure his sickness. At the beginning, he felt taking the medicine was just like taking poison but as his health slowly restored his impression of the medicine changed. No longer does he look at it as poison but as a saviour and looking forward to have it at any time. Thus we have to change our perception on predestination otherwise Allah will not help us if we do help ourselves. [34]




[1] M Zain Abdullah, Tasawuf Dan Zikir,89 (1995).

[2] Terjemahan Sahih Muslim Bk.1, 224 (1994)

[3] Terjemahan Sahih Muslim Bk.1, 228 (1994).

[4] Asy Syuura (42):51.

[5] At Taubah (9):31.

[6] Thaahaa (20):14.

[7] An Nisa (4):103.

[8] An Nisa (4):116.

[9] Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani, Op cit, 27.

[10] Haji Muhammad Bukhari Lubis, The Ocean Of Unity, 86 (1993).

[11] Imam Habib Abdulllah Haddad, Nasihat Agama Dan Wasiat Iman,250-251 (2000).

[12] Ahmad Shalaby, Perbandingan Agama Agama2 Yang Terbesar Di India, 61 (1970).

[13] Ibid.

[14] Terjemahan Sahih Muslim Bk.4, 449 (1994)

[15] Al Hadis (Miskatul Masabih), Vol. 4, 5 (1994).

[16] Terjemahan Terjemahan Sunan  Ibnu Majah Bk 1,  31 (1992) .

[17] Imam Ghazali, Ihya Ilumiddin Bk 1, 326 (1981).

[18] Imam Ghazali, Keajaiban hati, 5 (1979); Ihya Ilumiddin Bk. 4,  10 (1981).

[19] Al Araaf (7):179.

[20] Abdul Rahman Mohamed, Zikir Ibadah Yang Disalah Ertikan, 24 (2002)

[21] Imam Ghazali, Minhajul Abidin, 24 (1997).

[22] Imam Ghazali, Munhajul Abidin, 10 (1997).

[23] Imam Ghazali, Keajaiban Hati, 47 (1979).

[24] Al Hadid (57):3

[25] Al Hadid (57):4

[26] Terjemahan Sahih  Muslim Bk. 1, 5 (1994).

[27] Yunus (10):61; Al Qamar (54):52-53.

[28] Al Ahzab (33):62.

[29] Al Kahfi (18):23-24.

[30] Ali Imran (3):128; 154; ;Al Maidah (5):128.

[31] Al Baqarah (2):30

[32] Az Zumar (39):12; An Anaam (6):14.

[33] At Taubah (9):129

[34] Ar Ra’d (13):11

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3 comments to “SUMMARY – 2”

  1. Ringkasan 2 — The Gnosticman

    […] [1] M Zain Abdullah, Tasawuf Dan Zikir,89 (1995). […]

  2. Sanne

    Your answer lifts the intncligeele of the debate.

  3. RINGKASAN 2 | YAMAS-Indonesia

    […] [18] Imam Ghazali, Keajaiban hati, 5 (1979); Ihya Ilumiddin Bk. 4,  10 (1981). […]

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